First, let's have a look at some actual ECPE exam writing tasks so that we can see the different types of essay that we might have to write.
Our minds are wired to select and interpret evidence sustaining the essential belief: A variety of mechanisms: Self-justification is deeply ingrained in each of us.
Mental schema make it easier for us to perceive information that supports what we already know or believe. Unfortunately we often get it wrong. Our thinking is the result of our own perception, judgment, experience, and bias. Our brain distorts reality to increase our self-esteem through self-justification.
People perceive themselves readily as the origins of good effects and reluctantly as the origins of ill effects.
We present a one-sided argument to ourselves. Confirmation bias is the strong human tendency to dismiss or distort evidence contrary to our beliefs and readily seek out evidence that supports our views. Humility reduces our need for self-justification and allows us to admit to and learn from our mistakes.
It can help us overcome many of these distortions. People suffering from depression often reverse this bias and interpret evidence to support their fears they are not worthy. During times of stressoverload, or threat, we often resort to a simplistic form of thinking, called primal thinking, that incorporates many of these fallacies.
For an accurate appraisal it is important to reassess the situation using effortful, valid, thoughtful, and accurate analysis that properly allows for the complexities we face. Employ critical thinking and work to understand what is.
Styles of Distorted Thinking In addition to the logical fallacies that can misrepresent or misuse evidence, here is a list and short description of several common forms of distorted thinking. This is a failure to consider all the evidence in a balanced and objective assessment.
We go where our attention is, and our attention is inherently limited. Selectivity is a failure to consider a neutral, or balanced, point of view. It can have two basic forms. The first is considering only the negative details and magnifying them while filtering out all the positive aspects of a situation.
The second is taking the positive details and magnifying them while filtering out all the negative aspects of a situation. In any case evidence that supports your bias is selected, favored, or weighted more heavily than evidence contrary to your bias.
Find the realistic balance between the optimistic and pessimistic points of view. Seek out, carefully consider, and assimilate all the evidence. It is incorrect to arrive at a general conclusion based on a single incident or piece of evidence.
This is a common example of the more general fallacy of basing a conclusion on unrepresentative evidence. Consider a broad range of representative evidence before drawing a conclusion. Consider systematic evidence, and dismiss anecdotal evidence. The parable of the blind men and the elephant illustrates the dangers in generalizing from unrepresentative evidence.
What each person experienced was a true portion of the elephant, but taken individually each sample was unrepresentative of the entire elephant. Each blind man extended the evidence gathered only from his limited point of view to incorrectly conclude he understood the whole of the elephant.
Each sample can be accurately interpreted only when all the samples are integrated to create a representative whole. Polarized Thinking false choice, dichotomy, primal thinking, false dilemma, black and white thinking: This is the fallacy of thinking that things are either black or white, good or bad, all or nothing.I believe in being optimistic.
I think one of the hardest things is life is staying strong when everything else is going wrong.
Some good and some bad things happen in life and I just have to overlook the negative things, and focus on the positive. Optimism Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: the benefits of optimism, so let’s move on to some famous optimist – Dalai Lama to give you some guideline about being optimist person.
is the spiritual leader of the Tibetan people who believes that mental, physical, and spiritual health are connected to optimistic attitude.
How. - I am an ambitious person, whose attitude on life is of absolute optimism. Throughout my 17 years, I have experienced many difficult situations. Essay on Voltaire's Candide - Optimism in Candide The Effect of an Optimistic Attitude on a Person’s Health - We all live in the world, which is full of sadness and disappointing.
We see. Jun 30, · The “crazy busy” existence so many of us complain about is almost entirely self-imposed. To the uninitiated, cryonics might seem the stuff of “Vanilla Sky,” “Demolition Man,” and other purely science fiction works.
But many researchers believe that it is a credible field of. JOICHI ITO Founder and CEO, Neoteny. Emergent Democracy and Global Voices.
I am optimistic that open networks will continue to grow and become available to more and more people.