Pick a topic that everyone is currently discussing. Pay attention to the rumours. Select a question an answer to which is still unknown to many people. Choose an audience that does not agree with your point.
What does it mean? Why has it become so ubiquitous? Should we do something about it? Should we care at all? I will join this speculative trend and speculate about why there is so much speculation. In keeping with the trend, I will try to express my views without any factual support, simply providing you with a series of bald assertions.
Some of you may see that I have written out my talk, which is already a contradiction of principle. To keep within the spirit of our time, it should really be off the top of my head.
By the media I mean movies, television, Internet, books, newspapers and magazines.
First we might begin by asking, to what degree has the media turned to pure speculation? Someone could do a study of this and present facts, but nobody has. The requirement that you demonstrate a factual basis for your claim vanished long ago.
I merely refer to it now to set standards. The Sunday morning talk shows are pure speculation. They have to be. But television is entertainment. Also note the vague and hidden speculation. Bush is trying to hold together in the fractious coalition against terrorism.
By now, under the Faludi Standard I have firmly established that media are hopelessly riddled with speculation, and we can go on to consider its ramifications. I answer, absolutely not.
Such speculation is a complete waste of time. The reason why it is useless, of course, is that nobody knows what the future holds. Do we all agree that nobody knows what the future holds?
Or do I have to prove it to you? I ask this because there are some well-studied media effects which suggest that simply appearing in media provides credibility.
There was a well-known series of excellent studies by Stanford researchers that have shown, for example, that children take media literally. If you show them a bag of popcorn on a television set and ask them what will happen if you turn the TV upside down, the children say the popcorn will fall out of the bag.
This result would be amusing if it were confined to children.
But the studies show that no one is exempt. All human beings are subject to this media effect, including those of us who think we are self-aware and hip and knowledgeable.
Media carries with it a credibility that is totally undeserved. I refer to it by this name because I once discussed it with Murray Gell-Mann, and by dropping a famous name I imply greater importance to myself, and to the effect, than it would otherwise have.
Briefly stated, the Gell-Mann Amnesia effect is as follows. You open the newspaper to an article on some subject you know well. In mine, show business. You read the article and see the journalist has absolutely no understanding of either the facts or the issues.
Often, the article is so wrong it actually presents the story backward—reversing cause and effect. In any case, you read with exasperation or amusement the multiple errors in a story, and then turn the page to national or international affairs, and read as if the rest of the newspaper was somehow more accurate about Palestine than the baloney you just read.
You turn the page, and forget what you know. That is the Gell-Mann Amnesia effect. In ordinary life, if somebody consistently exaggerates or lies to you, you soon discount everything they say. In court, there is the legal doctrine of falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus, which means untruthful in one part, untruthful in all.
But when it comes to the media, we believe against evidence that it is probably worth our time to read other parts of the paper. The only possible explanation for our behavior is amnesia.The most conspicuous Minimalist esthetic in Star Trek is the color and use of colored light.
But something more subtle is almost as important, and that is the sound. Star Trek has a noticeable style not just in the visual appearance but in the auditory appearance, as well — the sound of it.
On one hand, there is a sort of Wagnerian musical scoring — sometimes appropriate, sometimes sonic. Published: Mon, 5 Dec Educators hoped that TV would serve as a window of knowledge for children.
They hoped that it would broaden their knowledge by exposing them to various learning experiences, and help them learn about different cultures. Try Our Friends At: The Essay Store. Free English School Essays.
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Discusses issue of violence in society with special emphasis on television violence. Nov 09, · Below is a list of the 20 most common IELTS essay topics that appear in writing task 2 with subtopics.
Although the essay questions change, the subject of the essays often remains the same.