A psychological view on the process of change and adaptation to new environments

Personality theories and models - introduction Behavioural and personality models are widely used in organisations, especially in psychometrics and psychometric testing personality assessments and tests. Behavioural and personality models have also been used by philosophers, leaders and managers for hundreds and in some cases thousands of years as an aid to understanding, explaining, and managing communications and relationships. Used appropriately, psychometrics and personality tests can be hugely beneficial in improving knowledge of self and other people - motivations, strengths, weaknesses, preferred thinking and working styles, and also strengths and preferred styles for communications, learning, management, being managed, and team-working.

A psychological view on the process of change and adaptation to new environments

Another 4 billion hectares of forest are used by humans to differing degrees, whereas, away from land, global fisheries are used very intensively, often beyond capacity 1.

To meet projected growth in human population and per capita food demand, historical increases in agricultural production will have to continue, eventually doubling current production e.

Agriculture is also a major economic, social, and cultural activity, and it provides a wide range of ecosystem services. Importantly, agriculture in its many different forms and locations remains highly sensitive to climate variations, the dominant source of the overall interannual variability of production in many regions and a continuing source of disruption to ecosystem services.

This existing sensitivity explains why a changing climate will have subsequent impacts on agriculture. Hence, it has become critical to identify and evaluate options for adapting to climate change in coming decades.

We argue there is a strong rationale for an increasing focus on adaptation of agriculture to climate change. This need arises from several considerations: The emissions of the major greenhouse gases are continuing to increase 6with the resultant changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration, global temperature, and sea level observed today already at the high end of those implied by the scenarios considered by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC 7.

Furthermore, some climate change impacts are happening faster than previously considered likely 5. If these trends continue, then more proactive and rapid adaptation will be needed.

There is currently a lack of progress in developing global emission-reduction agreements beyond the Kyoto Protocol, leading to concerns about the level of future emissions and hence climate changes and associated impacts.

The high end of the scenario range for climate change has increased over time 589and these potentially higher global temperatures may have nonlinear and increasingly negative impacts on existing agricultural activities 1.

Climate changes may also provide opportunities for agricultural investment, rewarding early action taken to capitalize on these options There is an immense diversity of agricultural practices because of the range of climate and other environmental variables; cultural, institutional, and economic factors; and their interactions.

This means there is a correspondingly large array of possible adaptation options. The objectives of this paper are first to outline these options for cropping and livestock systems, forestry, and fisheries, using the literature on crop yields as an example to assess the benefits of adaptation; and second, to suggest some general pathways that can help move from technical assessment of adaptation options to more practical action.

Accordingly, we identify some preconditions for more effective uptake of adaptations; develop an adaptation framework to engage all decision makers farmers, agribusiness, and policymakers that builds on the existing substantial knowledge of agricultural systems; and outline how science itself needs to adapt to remain relevant in this issue.

What Is in It for Us?

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The purpose of undertaking agricultural adaptation is to effectively manage potential climate risks over the coming decades as climate changes. Adaptation research undertaken now can help inform decisions by farmers, agrobusiness, and policy makers with implications over a range of timeframes from short-term tactical to long-term strategic 1.

However, it is particularly important to align the scales spatial, temporal, and sectoral and reliability of the information with the scale and nature of the decision. For example, short-term climate adaptation by farmers may be accomplished by taking into account local climate trends if there is a strong correspondence between these trends and projected climate changes, or it may be via climate forecasting at scales from daily to interannual.

However, farmers may find limited utility in long-term projections of climate, given the high uncertainties at the finer spatial and temporal scales at which their decisions are made In contrast, the general trends at larger time and spatial scales able to be more reliably projected with current climate models may be quite useful for input into policy and investment analyses, provided potentially critical factors are incorporated such as changes in climate extremes In the sections below, we try to identify other key benefits from an increased focus on climate change adaptation.

At the current relatively early stage of the debate, it is understandable that climate change adaptation is largely being dealt with in isolation from other issues although see ref. However, over time, this situation needs to evolve so that climate change is linked with a much broader set of policies.

In particular, there is a need for linkage with existing policies on climate risk such as those on drought or structural adjustment, which otherwise may become poorly targeted. Climate change will require these policies to become more dynamic, to cope with the high level of uncertainty in the timing and magnitude of potential climate changes and the rapidly evolving knowledge base.

Furthermore, climate change adaptation policies will interact with, depend on, or perhaps even be just a subset of policies on sustainable development and natural resource management, such as those necessary to regulate genetically modified organisms, protect human and animal health, and foster governance and political rights, among many others.

The critical issues of how climate change and adaptation may affect food security and trade and the risk of malnourishment are dealt with in a companion paper For example, we would expect the size and cost of the adaptation task to be lower if there is effective, but perhaps costly, mitigation and higher if there is no mitigation.

Similarly, the benefits of adaptation will be a function of the nature of climate change and the scale of impact. Consequently, inadequate consideration of adaptation options could result in the vulnerability to climate change being significantly overstated, giving rise to more severe mitigation targets.

Additionally, mitigation policies can affect the range of adaptation options that practitioners have at their disposal e. Hence adaptation analyses may be used to inform both the magnitude and timing of mitigation.

Achievement of this complex task of effectively integrating mitigation impacts and adaptation to inform public policy development remains a significant challenge for the scientific community, although some studies are now emerging This interaction of science and policy needs to evolve as the scientific knowledge base changes and may also focus attention on the importance of integrative rather than disciplinary science within the science—policy interface Adaptation analyses can also help inform governments and industry of the investment or disinvestment decisions they need to make now or in the near future in relation to climate-sensitive aspects of their portfolios e.

In particular, this applies to long-term investments such as plant and animal breeding programs; building capacity in the scientific and user communities; developing quarantine systems; establishing perennial crops and forest plantations; purchasing or selling land; or building or decommissioning major infrastructure such as dams and water distribution systems, flood mitigation works, and storage and transport facilities.

Climate risks are, of course, only one consideration within more complex decision-making processes For example, in Western Australia, increased risk of drought under global warming was integrated with projections of population growth, economic development, and social norms in relation to water use, resulting in the construction of a major new dam and development of other new water sources Participatory research into climate change adaptation options can help agricultural decision makers realize that acting on the existing trends in climate now is likely to be to their advantage e.🔥Citing and more!

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Method. The research takes the form of a case study. Data were collected from multiple perspectives (in-depth interviews with administrators, coaches and athletes), from multiple situations (observation of training, competitions and meetings) and from the analysis of documents.

Homepage: benjaminpohle.com HOLISTIC EDUCATION: A NEW PARADIGM FOR TEACHING. Aim of Education: Personality Integration, Creative Intelligence and Enlightenment or 'Happiness'.

A psychological view on the process of change and adaptation to new environments

The rapid changes and increased complexity of today’s world present new challenges and put new demands on our education system. There has been generally a growing awareness of the necessity to change and improve the preparation of students for productive .

The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently.

There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of existing agricultural systems, often variations of existing climate risk management.

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